Continued, Curcumin in Cancer Studies

Research Example 2   

Researchers exploring the synergistic effect of Curcumin combinations conducted a study which featured the use of not only Curcumin but also a substance is known as Mutamycin C.  Also known under the trademark name Mutamycin, Mitomycin C is commonly used as a chemotherapy drug in the treatment of breast cancer, anal and cervical cancers, and bladder cancers. In this particular study, the use of Mitomycin C, abbreviated as MMC or MTC, was combined with Curcumin and used to treat breast cancer tumors in the subjects.  The effect of the combination, which was given at different dosage levels, was examined within several differential contexts.  One of these contexts was differential gene suppression profiles.  Differential gene suppression is a facet of differential gene expression, which refers to controlling the expression  (or suppression) of genes through the use of various triggers.  Another context in which this MMC and Curcumin combination dosage were

Another context in which this MMC and Curcumin combination dosage were examined is gene ontology, which is a discipline devoted to understanding the biological processes of individual genes and their products.  Ingenuity pathway analysis and Signal-Net analysis were also explored.  These types of analysis allow researchers to understand the networks by which genes interact or are connected, i.e. what relationships genes have with one another.

 A MITT assay was used as a measurement tool to determine whether or not the combination treatment was successful concerning inhibiting the growth of cancerous cells in a desirable manner. A MITT assay uses certain enzymes which, in reaction to a type of dye, can give scientists an estimation of the amount of living cells present. The number of cells in a container (often a microtiter plate) will result in the container’s contents turning a particular shade of the dye color, allowing researchers to identify which containers hold more or fewer cells.  Programmed cell death is a phenomenon referred to as “apoptosis” in the scientific and medical communities.  Unlike cell death resulting from various types of trauma, Apoptosis is a regulated form of cell death, one which is controlled by predictable biological processes throughout the spam of multicellular organism.  During this experiment, this phenomenon was tracked via a “flow cytometric analysis” which uses lasers to count and examine cells and their parts. Hoechst 33258 staining was another tool used in this study.

Image result for apoptosis

Programmed cell death is a phenomenon referred to as “apoptosis” in the scientific and medical communities.  Unlike cell death resulting from various types of trauma, Apoptosis is a regulated form of cell death, one which is controlled by predictable biological processes throughout the spam of multicellular organism.  During this experiment, this phenomenon was tracked via a “flow cytometric analysis” which uses lasers to count and examine cells and their parts. Hoechst 33258 staining was another tool used in this study.

Image result for mitomycin c

One of the combinations with which the researchers seemed to have the most success involved 1.5 milligrams of Mitomycin C paired with 100 milligrams of Curcumin.  This combination interfered with the growth of cancerous tumors in an apparently synergistic manner. Out of over 1,500 different genes and gene expressions, there were 25 which demonstrated changes that were significant. These changes were observed in more than 25 different signal pathways.

 Two particular genes showed an increased level of inter-gene cross interaction during the combination treatment.  Expression was increased by over eight and nearly 12 fold, as compared to the expression changes in the group. These two genes are designated as MAPK 1 and MAPK 14.

During this experiment, Mitomycin C was shown to be more efficient as a tumorcide when combined with Curcumin. In another experiment, the combination was demonstrated to speed or encourage the apoptosis of cancerous cells in human breast cancer which involved the MDA-MB231 cell line. One theory is that the Mitomycin C and the Curcumin treatment can induce apoptosis  in breast cancer tumor cells due to its effects on ERK pathways.

 This is an example of combination treatment therapy, which shows malignant cells in breast cancer inhibited from producing signals. It also stopped the cells from finding alternative means of invading the healthy tissue it uses to causes the formation of tumors with particular types of cell structure. This combination of Curcumin and Mitomycin C also halted cell growth of cancer by interference and suppression of its genetic behavior, also called expressions.  Out of the 1,501 types of gene, or cancer variants, that were analyzed, 25 to 27 had shown this combination had largely halted cancerous growth and caused cell death. It may not seem like a lot, but this is significant news to cancer researchers.  Researchers Example 3

Researchers Example 3 Abstract anti-metabolites are drugs that mimic natural chemicals to have a predictable effect on known metabolic cell processes via enzyme interaction. These drugs have been shown to be useful in the treatment of some types of breast cancers, even at advanced stages. However, the effectiveness of that treatment  is offset by the fact that it can be accompanied  by debilitating side effects.  These side effects can be so severe in nature that doctors may have  to limit or discontinue treatment. One of these antimetabolites, known as 5-flouracil (5-FU) has been so successful as a  cell proliferation inhibitor that it has been designated by many as an essential element in the treatment of solid tumors and has become a standard in chemotherapy protocol. While

One of these antimetabolites, known as 5-flouracil (5-FU) has been so successful as a  cell proliferation inhibitor that it has been designated by many as an essential element in the treatment of solid tumors and has become a standard in chemotherapy protocol. While 5-FU is reported to have reasonable response rates, there is still significant room for improvement concerning clinical outcomes. There are also concerns in regards to 5-FU’s side effects, which are classed as cytotoxic, as there are in many other types of chemotherapeutic agents.

In this study, 5-FU was combined with Curcumin with intention of exploring whether or not there would interact in a synergistic manner that could improve treatment outcomes. The cells in question were MDA-MB-231 cells.

A synergistic relationship was not detected when using bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu) assays to determine the whether or not the cells were demonstrating DNA synthesis. However, cell viability assays told a different story. Cytotoxicity of 5-FU alone, when measured by cell viability assays, returned 28 uM as the LD 50 value. When these treatments were replicated with a combination of 5-FU and Curcumin that value showed a very impressive increase to 200-300 uM (seven to ten times higher than 5-FU alone!). This suggests that Curcumin could be an extremely useful addition to 5-Fu for the purpose of protection against cytotoxicity. If true, Curcumin could play a vital role in enhancing the chemotherapeutic efficacy of 5-FU via synergistic therapy and could help to protect the viability of healthy cells even 

If true, Curcumin could play a vital role in enhancing the chemotherapeutic efficacy of 5-FU via synergistic therapy and could help to protect the viability of healthy cells even while increasing treatment times when using 5-FU and similar drugs designed for chemotherapy. Many patients experience severe reactions to their chemotherapy regimens–sometimes to the point of abandoning chemotherapy altogether– so this finding could turn out to be critical for the prognosis of patients like this.

 This is another study which defines the bio intelligence that Curcumin has as a pathway and signal inhibitor of cancer cells.Curcumin aids the apoptotic effect and destroys cancer cell with its application without harming host tissues. It shows that Curcumin can work efficiently alongside other anticancer remedies, even if it has no effect on that particular type of cancer. It helps reduce toxicity and limit the complication of side effects from traditional treatments. This was by Clayton Geoffreys

 

 

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